"Listen. can you hear it! The sound is beginning to build in my heart. It is rhythmic, powerful, it comes from my soul's depths as I cry for a vision. I close my eyes, and see stately guardians all around me, they are huge red cedars, they bend toward me as they, too, listen to the heartbeat coming from the centre of Mother Earth. The rhythm is swirling on the wings of the four great winds who were birthed there. Their breath encircles the trunks of the guardians and dance upwards to embrace the leaves and the fruit.

My big drum beats a powerful rhythm.....I listen, and feel it surround me. I can hear the hum at the end of the beat, a split second before the next beat is heard, and I know it is my Ancestors keeping time with me and Mother Earth as they drift toward the sound. I continue to drum, and know that all of nature hears my song of peace and welcome. The sound builds, as connections are made to the supernatural world and I am connected to all that is in form.

The Star Nation glitters, Father Sky surrounds me in a protective embrace, the pounding rhythm travels up the rays of Grandfather Sun and just before he disappears into a blazing horizon, he kisses his mate Grandmother Moon....Listen. It is happening, I can feel my connection to my higher power, that level of super-consciousness that touches my spirit and brings it into the fullness of its glory.  For a blessed and sacred time I have moved outside the concrete jungle, and I am lost in the rhythms of timelessness. I can do anything, accomplish my dreams, live my life in a manner that pleases my Ancestors. I am home. Nii'sabbat, It is finished. Wilwilaaysk, All My Relations."




Since the beginning of civilization, Drums have been one of the main universal signals for calling people together. The drums are humanity's common pulse. In other words, Drums do not know about race, racism, jealousy, hate, resentment, greed, language, genders, gender choice, human diversity. None of that matters, what matters is the sound of one heart beating.

It is a proven fact that drumming circles improve productivity and teamwork while reducing absenteeism. Drumming dramatically reduces stress through a synchronicity of group 'right' action. Disputes are healed, reconnections are made. Do it, it works!

People from many different backgrounds come together in my drumming circles to create cultural and personal connections through the sheer joy of drumming.  Drumming circles are a time for everyone to get together and just be. 

Drum rhythms reach deep into the memories of the ancient brain that goes back before recorded time. Drums pulse the wisdom of the ages, they are first in time and first in line. As the drum connects your  heartbeat with Noo Halidzoks (Mother Earth), inner chatter is quieted, and a peaceful meditative state is often the result.

Messages from the Medicine Wheel; your power animals, spirit guides and Ancestors come because they love a good drumming circle! The drums guide you in the direction of connection to those things that really matter.  Drums take you to the centre of the earth, where you spread your arms and feel the strength of the four great winds that had their origins there; where your once again connect with that which is greater than yourself.

Moreover, the beauty and wisdom of First Nations stories when combined with the music and rhythm bridges the cultural divide in a way that allows for the magic of all Turtle Island's Native people to be celebrated and understood in a positive and uplifting way. Peace on earth becomes a reality. So drum for the Earth, Community, Family, Yourself, and sing like everyone is listening!




Just like humans, each drum, be it a hand drum or big drum, has its own unique voice and vibration, for the simple reason that each animal and tree from which the drum is made have their own unique medicines; their spirits are part of the drum.  Rule of thumb, the thicker the hide (buffalo, moose), the lower the sound.

It is usually a seven day ceremony, for hand drums, from birth (making it) to waking  it in a special ceremony. It is, after all, a living being with a heart and a voice. 

I do not play any of my drums until they have been given their voices in ceremony.  I know it is hard to resist playing it before it is woken, but part of the knowledge is about discipline and honouring the process.

I have had the privilege of waking many drums across Canada, which includes: smoking my pipe, prayers of dedication to the drum, the Ancestors & the Universe; feasting the drum; engaging the joyous sounds of other drums as they wake their new family member; tobacco is offered in thanks. 



The drum represents the universal heartbeat of Noo Halidzoks (Mother Earth) - the universal mother to us all. Therefore, all drums in First Nations cultures are 'female' and 'human'. The first sound that was heard in the world was her heartbeat. The first sound a baby hears in the womb is the heartbeat of its mother.

The heartbeat is manifested through playing a special rhythm on the drum. This rhythm facilitates healing and realignment of the four realms of human existence (Mental, Spiritual, Emotional, Physical). Listen to the hum that rests between the voice and the drum -- the hum is the spirit of the Ancestors. 

Her heartbeat on the drum can be done in a variety of ways, here are two suggestions:

  • Tsimshian: Four steady beats, followed for two quick beats - one, two three, four, one/two, two three four, one/two, two, three, four.....)

  • Anishinaabe - two rhythmic beats - one/two - one/two - one/two.....

When playing a drum (either hand or big drums), it should never be hammered in an aggressive way, this suggests giving it a 'beating' and one must never 'hit' a woman!  The  drum mallet should not be referred to as a 'beater' because of the aggression contained in the word. There is already too much violence in Native communities.  Sandy and I refer to all our drum mallets ass "Grandmother's Arms".

Components of the Drum & their connections: The frame is made of a variety of woods that connect us to the "standing people" (trees); the skin is a gift from a variety of animals (deer, moose, buffalo, horse, cow) that connect us to the four-leggeds. The sinew used to tie the drum most often comes from the long leg muscle of the animal. Sinew is Turtle Island's original string. It ties the standing people and the human hand that plays the drum to the animal. 



Indigenous history is clearly delineated between pre- and post-European contact. In pre-contact history, the egalitarian nature of original Indigenous societies which underlay all cultural references meant that women and men were of equal status. Indeed, what is refreshing about this reality is that no one had to endlessly talk about gender issues, everyone simply did what they were good at in order to further and protect the communities. Recognition of the matriarch as a natural and equal leader gave women powerful voices in the decision-making processes of day-to-day tribal life.

Women created stories, songs, prayers and ceremony. We sang and drummed on our "female relative" to remember language, to teach our children, to heal hearts, to honour nature, our communities, notwithstanding both women and men. Men respected and honoured us in our role as cultural guardians, and our world view was sustained for a millenia. No one had the time to wallow in false ideologies.

It is the cultural references that we create that we call 'traditions'. Traditions are immutable, in other words, they are not supposed to change. Yet for Indigenous women in post-European contact times, starting approximately in the fifteen century, when the first Europeans began to arrive, negative changes were and are legion. In many respects traditions are codes of conduct. Therefore, anyone who sees the joy in her or his culture should size all manner of what it represents. If a drum is part of the equation, no matter its size, there should be no argument,  because it is not a question of power-over mentalities which never existed in the tribes in the first place. It simply is.

Unfortunately, a lack of knowledge gives naysayers fuel for opinions that are not only based on faulty logic but dishonours thousands of years of Indigenous living. 

Only as post-European contact belief systems began to insinuate their patrilineal stances into Native communities, clearly placing the male above the female, that things drastically changed for women. It has only been in the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries that women have been regaining their equal place in their communities. This has been demonstrated all across Turtle Island by the act of women "taking back the drum", a metaphor for advocating and demanding our historic right to play the big drums, and to celebrate our culture wherever, whenever and however we do choose.

Anyone who has to comment on freedom, peace, salvation, or gender equality in a relentless fashion will never find it. Sadly, Indigenous women continue to be the most marginalized citizens in Canada. I have great sorrow for those sisters who choose or who are forced through violence to support the chaotic actions of men who would prevent them from coming into their own power. Those of us at the big drum have an honour song for those women and for all people who have lost their voices.

No one has the right to claim ownership, for the simple reason that the drum is a universal (global) female symbol of healing, harmony, dignity, honour, respect, humility, love, trust, courage and wisdom. Moreover, since before recorded time, women across the world have made drums, kept drums, inherited drums, created songs and celebrated feminine power by playing drums of all shapes AND SIZES!

Sandy and I, for example, do not own Gyemk ~Loop or K'oolgyet Nah Hool. They own themselves. We are their caregivers; they simply let us ride in the van with them as they go to various events with their healing messages.

Before any of us can claim the nobility of the soul, we must first recognize our equal, vital roles in the preservation and sustainability of humanity and Mother Earth. As former UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan said, "The role of women in decision-making is central to the advancement of women around the world, and to the progress of humankind as a whole." Thus, does the continuity of peace continued for ALL nations.

Does it really make any sense for women to shut down their voices during important events or ceremonies?  We are simply taking back the drum - we ask no permission to do so, as it is our right, no less, no more than our right to breathe. To clarify, women are taking back what has always been ours to share, and we deny no one else the right to play the drums. It is not a matter of us versus them, men vs women, we all have the same right to the drums of our culture. It is simply is. Wilwilaasyk, All My Relations.


http://www.ajic.mb.ca/volumel/chapter13.html#2 Interesting Read, Justice System and Aboriginal People. It talks about Anishinaabe, Cree and Lakota women, for example, as the ones who came basically from the fifth world to care for the earth. That, women and men are equal in these teachings.


Watch Video: "The Enduring Spirit of Aboriginal Women"





Haudenosaunee Prophecy: "When the maple trees start dying from the top, women will take back the drum"; it is  happening all over Turtle Island. The trees are dying, men have not fulfilled their responsibilities and promises; women must now re-assert themselves in order to save themselves, their children, their communities and the Earth Mother.

  • Men were to respect women, and women's leadership role in the community.  Failing grade.

  • Men were to respect the knowledge held by women, stories, songs, ceremonies. everyday life. Failing grade.

  • Men were never to raise their voices or hands against women, children or old ones. Failing grade.

  • Men were to protect the "giver of life" by all means necessary. Failing grade.  

Question: Why is it that some Indigenous men simply refuse to understand their own cultural knowledge. Answer: They have lost their hearing.

Alas, as recent history shows, family violence in Native communities continues to be at least five times the national average, a national scandal in any language!  Men no longer have the right to the drum. As previously noted, the whole notion of drum ownership flies in the face of even the most basic of Native teachings as regards generosity, sharing and caring for each other.


  1. Gyemk ~Loop was invited to participate at a powwow in a federal corrections facility. A member of one of the male drum groups was denied access, because the sniffer dog detected drugs on his clothing.  In other words, his drug use automatically placed the integrity of their drum into question when the other drummers permitted it.

  2. A male drummer was drunk and allowed access to a Toronto powwow by one of the organizers, who was also drunk.

  3. At one of my annual Women's Feasts, it was reported by two of my guests that they had witnessed drug-induced behaviour by men on a big drum at an Indigenous gathering in Toronto.

  4. University of Waterloo Powwow, 2014. I and two other women were threatened by a male keeper of a big drum with physical abuse  if we brought our drums to the powwow. The University subsequently rescinded our invitation and allowed the abusive men to remain in the powwow. A man who was a drummer at the second big drum was drunk when he phoned his threats to one of the women, again bringing the integrity of his drum into question.

It is distressing, and despairing at the lack of respect shown by some males to their own drums, to women, and to their cultures. It is an insult to Indigenous cultures in general, given that drugs and alcohol nearly destroyed some tribal communities, and is still ongoing today.

I, therefore,  rest my case as regards women taking back and playing the big drum.




FINAL NOTE:  Unfortunately, misogyny tends to override all the really terrific Aboriginal men that I personally know, and who are out there in support of women. I received support from them throughout the University of Waterloo debacle by phone, email, Facebook.  To these men, I offer my love and respect.  See YOU at the big drums.

Photo above: Drummaker, John Somosi. He makes the most beautiful hand drums: Email: k_edgecombe@hotmail.com  

More about Women and the Big Drums



As if I didn't have enough trouble with misogyny  over other issues as regards women's place in tribal communities, I had a vision in 2000 while  on visionquest. I was told to acquire a big drum that would help unite & heal women in creating peaceful solutions to the problems that beset them, as well as Mother Earth. I was to write an honour song.

I waited for the drum for three years. My Ancestors work in their own time. Gyemk ~Loop showed herself in all her glory at a powwow in Toronto, in November, 2003. She had been made by a male Cree/Mohawk drum-maker.  He made it because he believed in the healing power of women and wanted to create something to help us heal. Ay-eeah, there are wonderful,  enlightened Indigenous men out there.

Looks are deceiving: Although Gyemk ~Loop looks like a powwow drum, she is not in competition with men's big drums; her gentle, yet powerful spirit is needed for other purposes. SHE IS, PRIMARILY, A WOMEN'S HEALING DRUM.

Gyemk ~Loop is a thirteen-sided, 32" in diameter buffalo-hide drum that honours the thirteen full moons that women cycle with. She has been invited to a number of events to help heal dis-chord including a number of powwows!!

Men of good cheer and genuine respect for their sisters, came forward to offer support and teachings as regards the care of the big drum. They became "honorary women". Peter (husband); Jeff (Sandy's husband), are on the current roster of honorary women. They don't play her, but they help to move her; she is one big, heavy, beautiful drum. 

True to the vision, the pieces for the Drum Staff started to literally fall in place when a beautiful birch tree on my former property passed to the spirit world. It was brought down with great ceremony on September 25, 2004 with Gyemk ~Loop pounding out an honour song.

Sandy and I both contributed four Eagle feathers to the staff. My nieces, Shannie and Erin offered the two Eagle feathers they had been given at their naming ceremonies.

The first wing feather was offered during a drumming circle at a festival in Red Rock, ON (August 8, 2004). It was an emotional moment. A wonderful man simply walked up to me and offered it. I explained to the crowd that the feather was not for me but for Gyemk ~Loop.

The eagle feather teachings say that when one eagle feather is given, another usually follows shortly after. Within 30 minutes, the second arrived from a couple at the same festival. The two feathers were from opposite wings, providing the perfect balance for the staff. The staff is called the "Heron Bay Eagle Drum Staff."  Gyemk ~Loop pounded out her thanks.




As if being the keeper of one big drum wasn't enough, I had another dream in early 2008 that a second big drum needed to be acquired. The new drum was to be a Family Drum so that both women and men would be able to play it.

"Oh boy, this is going to be interesting," was Sandy's only response.

Once again I let the dream float in the universe to allow my Ancestors to do their thing.  On November 29, 2009, Sandy and Jeff, decided at the last minute, on the last day to attend the Hamilton, Ontario powwow. Well, didn't Sandy meet the same man who'd made Gyemk ~Loopsix years earlier! He'd made another drum as "an all people, family drum." He said it hadn't sold because most of the male drum groups thought it looked a little sissy; it had been painted in the four original colours of human (red, black, yellow, white). Lucky for us we don't have those kinds of hang-ups!

Sandy couldn't get me by phone, and time was running out, the powwow was about to close. What to do, buy it, don't buy it. She walked away from the drum and immediately she was overcome with a thundering headache. (I told her later it was probably a combination of me and my Ancestors slapping her upside the head - "Don't you dare walk away!"). She went back, the headache disappeared, she bought the drum.

She wasn't sure if I was going to be upset because I wasn't there when she found it. "Hey, chickee, we're sisters, you heard my dream, you knew the drum was connected and the rest is history."

Her name is, K'oolgyet Nah Hool (All One People Drum;;anyone who plays her is known as a "K'ool Drummer"!Drummer."

K'oolgyet Nah Hool is 24" in diameter and made of moose hide; she's packed withcharacter and good humour. She is smaller than Gyemk ~Loop and therefore higher-pitched. The voices of the two drums balance each other perfectly.

 We had no time to wake K'oolgyet Nah Hool before we left on tour; she was woken at our first stop, which happened to be Holy Cross Secondary School in Kingston, ON. I told the kids that, other than Sandy, we were all meeting the drum for the first time. They were thrilled, I was thrilled. On December 16, 2009 K'oolgyet Nah Hool was born. We sang songs, the tobacco danced and we ha

ve a beautiful new big drum to share with all of you.




1.  A drum is in the keeping of the person who made it OR purchased it OR traded for it OR had it given to them as a gift OR prayed for it. It is not community property unless it has been identified as a Share Drum. If the drum belongs to an individual, then permission must be given by that individual for anyone to even touch it much less play it. In other words, look but do not touch unless permission has been given.  (Photo right is my hand drum, no one handles it except my sisters, Sandy and Kate).

2.  Keep reminding yourself that the drum is human and one does not fondle other humans without permission!  Accord the drum the same respect. In my case, my Sisters, Kate and Sandy are the only ones allowed to touch my hand drum without first asking permission.

3. As noted above, when playing a drum, it should never be hammered in an aggressive way. This suggests giving it a 'beating' and one must never 'hit' a woman! The drum mallet is called a  Grandmother's Arm.

4.  The hand drum is a sacred object, therefore, when not in use it should sleep in its own bag made of natural materials, (i.e. 100% cotton, animal hide). Hanging a hand drum on a wall as an art piece to be admired diminishes its voice and purpose.  You wouldn't hang your mother on the wall would you? The drum should always be placed skin-side up when at rest as a sign of respect, it is also easier on the hide. (Photo is a drum I made and painted in honour of my residential school survivor Grandmother.)

5. No drinking, no smoking,  drugs, foul language or any other behaviour that is disrespectful to yourself, others and the drum.

  More on Protocol & Behaviour (powwows, gatherings)






  • I am Mother Earth's heartbeat and the sacred gift of Creation.

  • I am the universal heartbeat of the secular and supernatural worlds.

  • I help you reconnect to the memories in your ancient brain and heal your spirit.

  • I reduce stress, help bring your body, mind, emotions and spirit into peaceful alignment as you walk your often complex earth walk.

  • I help ground you in the truth of your existence.

  • I put you in touch with creation itself.

  • I speak to all people equally and peacefully.

  • I am a powerful non-verbal form of peaceful communication.

  • I am the practice of peace.

  • I am renewal, re-growth and fulfillment.

  • I am the pulse of the Universe and the ancient wisdom of the Ancestors.

  • I am alert, alive and ready to move you to another state of consciousness. The Lakhota call it, "Hanta Ho" (Clearing the Way); Ojibwa, "Mene-doh" (State of Revitalization).

  • When you hear the rhythm of unison group drumming and contribute your beat and your breath, you are listening, playing, open, receptive and creative at the same time.

  • When you play me together you play as one heartbeat. One heartbeat can heal everything.

  • My top represents Father Sky.

  • My bottom represents Mother Earth

  • My stitching connects the two and represents the warriors for peace who play me.

  • Your hand is never raised high above the shoulder and slammed down - that is just MALE EGO. See next point.

  • The hand of the drummer should not be raised above the heart, for I am peace.

  • I release tension, emotional stress and mental fatigue.

  • I reconnect with the natural rhythms of the drummer.

  • I take you to the dream world to let your unconscious speak with your conscious in safety and harmony.

  • When you play me there is a synchronization of energy, a unity of common purpose. 

  • I heal disconnects and sing songs for all the brave tomorrows.

    Wilwilaaysk, All My Relations





LOG DRUMS were shaped from a solid piece of Red Cedar. It was not a solo drum, but played by several very skilled drummers working in tandem.


BOX DRUMS made from red cedar, with rounded corners and glued provide a deep, heavy pulsating sound that fills the corners of souls and rooms!


FRAME DRUMS (usually 18-24") are a staple on the northwest coast.


ANISHINAABE, CREE, MI'GMAQ  Frame Drums (12"-18"), as well as most Indigenous peoples (other than Haudenosaunne), the adoption of the big drum.  As is the case with all tribes, these communities recognize the drum as the centre of life and Mother Earth's heartbeat. Deer and moose hide are popular choices for the skins.



Water Drum: Originally made out of birch bark and covered with animal hide (moose, deer), it is filled with water which controls the sound. The drums can be as large as eighteen inches high; the norm, however, is around five inches high so they can be held in the hand while played. The dampened hide is held tight by a ring. This  water drum is unique to the Haudenosaunee and makes a wonderful fairly high pitched sound when played. The Grandmother's arm is a small carved wooden stick between 8"-11" in length with a wider section at one end that strikes the drum. (Photo is a Water Drum that was given to me as an Elder gift).


Traditionally made from Caribou skin with seal or walrus skin wrapped around the handle . The skin was very thin, allow the drum to echo when played. The handle was securely tied, often at an angle to give the drummer ease of playing.




"Among the Dakhota and Lakhota, the drum occupies a position of great cultural and symbolic power. Regarded as a living entity, it is simultaneously understood as a spiritual guardian and a musical instrument, a living tradition and a reference to a past way of life. Consequently, the continued spiritual, ceremonial, and musical duties of those who play the drum, attendant to both the larger community as well as the living instrument itself, have encourage the use of music and dance as an integral part of current D/Lakota cultural education and identity." (Jonathan Ritter, UCLA (http://www.american-music.org/publications/bullarchive/Ritter.html) (icture of a 19thC Lakota Big Drum)



Shakers are often referred to as the "tears of the Ancestors" or represent rainwater. In ceremony, one never wakes the Ancestors with a drum as they may be sleeping, a drum would jerk them awake. Instead, Ancestors are woken gently to the sound of the shaker.

Left to Right: Gourd shakers, marakas, Anishinaabe Rabbit fur and birch bark, Haudenosaunee shaker, gifted to me is my favourite

, it is used in all my ceremonies, shows & presentations.



Just so the world does not think that Gyemk ~Loop Big Drum is the only Women's big drum in Canada, here are a couple of photos of the Okistitawan Mista Hiya (Grizzly Bear) Women's Big Drum from Sturgeon Lake First Nation, Northern Alberta. Led by Cree Drummer, Matricia Brown.

The women have been taking their drum into schools, played for Aboriginal Women’s day and performed at a Grande Concert. They have also been asked to play for an Alberta Northern Teacher’s Conference (First Nation, Metis, and Inuit).

Sisters, Gyemk ~Loop & K'oolgyet Nah Hool play and sing you an honour song for your courage in stepping forward.


 Always remember, Sisters, the drum, no matter its size, has been ours since before the beginning of recorded time, and we have a sacred obligation and right to play her.

Lut'ak Halaaytn Yugyetk
(Keep your spirits strong)




Drums are basically classified by shape: cylindrical, conga, barrel, bowl, goblet (Djembe), conga.


First Nations - Pacific Northwest: Log Drum, Box Drum




Africa: Aburukuwa, Djembe, Drun, Berber, Batá, Bougarabou, Ashiko, Ewe, Kpanlogo,




Arabia, Turkey: Darbuka, Davul, Tar

Caribbean: Steelpan Drums



China: Low War, Red Flower, White Opera, Da Gang Gu



Cuba: Cajons, Bongo, Conga, Timbales 


India, Tabla, Pakhawaj, Dhak, Dhimay, Dhol, Dholak, Naqqara, Pung, Damphu, Tavil, Mridangam


Egypt: Jug, Doumek, Tar Riq





Ireland: Bodhran (Bodhar means 'haunting')



Japan Taiko
: Kotsuzumi, ootsuzumi, Nagado-daiko, Byou-uchi daiko  



Ipahui, Slit (tree trunks - found everywhere including Asia, Americas, Africa, Oceania)



Samba Drums
: Surdo, Caixa, Agogo, Tamborim, Repanique, Timbal


Viet Nam:
 Dong Son

From left: Conga, Doumek (Egypt), Da Gang Gu (China) Djembe (Africa), Dong Son (Viet Nam)


 The Beat Goes On! Thunder Wolf Drumming Workshops



Considered the oldest video of Native drumming. Filmed in Thomas Edison's studio in 1894